Tbilisi (in georgian თბილისი) is the capital and largest city of Georgia, located on the banks of the Kura River. The city was founded in the V century. The strategic location at the crossroads between Europe and Asia has repeatedly made it an apple of discord between various forces in the Caucasus. Many-sided history can be studied by its architecture, starting from the spacious avenues of Rustaveli and Agmashenebeli and ending with the narrow streets of the Narikala district, which was preserved from the early Middle Ages.
The population of Tbilisi, which covers an area of 726 km ² - is a population of 1,113,000 people.
The name Tbilisi was first mentioned in the IV century; its appearance is associated with the presence in the city of warm sulfur springs (Tbili - "warm"); in Russian until 1936 the name Tiflis, which was acquired through Greek literature, was used.
It is believed that Tbilisi was founded in the 5th century AD by Vakhtang Gorgasali, king of Iberia, and became the capital in the 6th century, but the name of Tbilad is found on earlier Roman maps, and the thermal baths of the 1st and 2nd centuries with mosaic-tiled swimming pools, changing rooms and a developed system of ceramic pipes. In other parts of the city excavated settlements VI-III millennium BC. e. Tbilisi is the most important industrial, social and cultural center of Georgia. The city is also an important transit center for transnational energy and trade projects.
Metekhi (Tbilisi) is not only a temple or a former castle, it is a small area that lies between the Avlabari district and the Old Town. Here, according to legend, was built the first palace of King Vakhtang Gorgasala. In those days, Metekhi began the development of Tbilisi. There is a beautiful viewing platform from which you can admire the Old Town lying across the Kura.
The history of the district begins in the V century, when King Vakhtang Gorgasal founded Tbilisi. Standing on the ledge of the rock, the equestrian statue of the Tsar symbolizes this moment: Vakhtang seems to point to the region of the Tbilisi sulfur baths lying in front of him. Historians say that it was on Metekhi rock that Gorgasal built his first palace.
Approximately during the construction of the hypothetical palace of Vakhtang Gorgasal the Georgian martyr Saint Shushanik was killed. Her remains were buried in Metekhi, after which the place became the object of pilgrimage. In addition to the main Metekhi church on the rock, three centuries later another sacral object dedicated to the Holy Abo of Tbilisi was erected.
Abanotubani is a historical district in the center of Tbilisi, famous for its complex of baths standing on natural sulfur sources. Constructed at different times in the XII-XIX, the present baths form a separate quarter of the city, which is a popular place both among the residents of the city and with numerous tourists.
A legend about the foundation of Tbilisi is connected with Abanotubani. According to her, the Georgian king Vakhtang Gorgasali hunted in this area and fired a falcon on a flying pheasant. The falcon fell on prey and the birds disappeared in the forest. When the king found his falcon, it turned out that the pheasant he had obtained fell into a hot spring and was welded. The king was glad of such a find and ordered to build a bath around the spring, which later expanded to a block, and then the city. The truth is true or not, but the warm sulfur sources really played a very important role in choosing a place for the construction of Tbilisi. Warm (the temperature of the outlet water reaches 37 °) the sources in this place have always served as a bathing place for the inhabitants. In the area of Abanotubani archaeologists have discovered baths I-II v.v. with mosaic pools, cloakrooms and a wide-branched system of ceramic pipes.
Maidan Square is one of the central squares of the Old Town. It is located at the river Kura. In Meidan, Leselidze Street (the new name of Kote Abkhazi) flows, which originates from Freedom Square. In the immediate vicinity of Meidan there are sulfur baths of Abanotubani, from which, according to legend, the history of the whole city of Tbilisi began. There is a name from the Turkish word "area" - this is Meydan.
In this area, many cultures intertwined: 50 meters from the square - the synagogue, 100 meters - the main Orthodox church of Sioni, 70 meters - the church, which Georgians share with Armenians on days. Here you can see the minaret. This is a quick snapshot of the intertwining and symbiosis that still reigns on the streets of old Tbilisi. That is why Meydan is also called the square of five churches.
Rikke Park in Tbilisi, is located on the left bank of the Kura. From the east the park is limited by the descent of Baratashvili and the Wine Revolt.
The park adjoins the footbridge of the World, which connects it with the Old City of Tbilisi. Near the park there is also Metekhi Bridge. The park is connected by cable car to the Narikala fortress. Thanks to its location, Rika Park is a very popular place for walking with tourists and residents of the city. In the park, Rica traditionally holds a concert on the Independence Day of Georgia.
Riquet is the newest park of the city, it is arranged in 2010. The park is made in an unusual, modern style, there are almost no empty spaces, all empty spaces are occupied by objects of infrastructure, art or recreation. In the park there are many children's playgrounds with a soft covering, labyrinths of green plantations, there is a climbing stand, a platform for large chess with the sizes of figures about a meter, several art objects - a grand piano, a fountain in the style of cubism. In the park there is also a monument to the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan. In the evening, all the alleys of the park are lit with romantic lights, creating a magical atmosphere. In the summer half of the year in the park every evening there is a show of singing and dancing fountains.
The bridge of the Peace is a pedestrian bridge over the Kuru River in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. It is located between Metekhi Bridge and Baratashvili Bridge. The bridge connects the street of Heraklion II and Rikke Park.
The bridge consists of a 156-meter steel frame covered with glass. The whole structure is supported by 4 supports. You can get to the bridge from the side of Irakli II Street and Rikey Park, or from the embankments of the boulevards.
The bridge was built on the initiative of Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili. The idea of creating such a project was born after the Georgian-Ossetian conflict in August 2008. The customer was the Tbilisi City Hall. The bridge was officially opened on May 6, 2010.
The architect of the bridge is the Italian Michele de Lucchi, who previously built the Avlabar residence and the new building of the Georgian Ministry of Internal Affairs. The designer of the lighting was the Frenchman Philippe Martino (French Philippe Martinaud).
Narikala - a serf complex of different eras in Old Tbilisi.
The exact time of the founding of the fortress in Tbilisi is unknown, but in the IV century it already existed and was called Shuris-Tsikhe.
Under David the Builder, the fortress was fortified and expanded. The modern name was given to it, it is believed, by the Mongols.
The Tbilisi citadel, close to the modern view, acquired in the XVII-XVIII centuries. However, the explosion of the powder depot in 1827 inflicted irreparable damage on it.
In the 1990s. attempts were made to restore Narikali, in particular, the church of St. Nicholas, which existed on the territory of the fortress in the 12th century, was rebuilt.
To Narikala on the other side of the Kura River from Ricke Park is a cable car.
Tsminda Sameba cargo - "Holy Trinity" - the main cathedral of the Georgian Orthodox Church, which is located in Tbilisi, on the hill of St. Ilya (the left bank of the Kura River). There are thirteen thrones in the cathedral; the lower church dedicated to the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin; stand separately belfry.
The construction of the new cathedral was planned in 1989 in connection with the celebration of the 1500th anniversary of the autocephaly of the Georgian church and in commemoration of the 2000th anniversary of Christianity. Competition for the erection of the temple was won by a retrospective project of Archil Mindiashvili. The height of the upper church is 68 m (without a dome overhead, cross 7.5 m); The length from east to west is 77 meters, from north to south - 65 meters; total area - more than 5 thousand square meters.
The temple was laid down on November 23, 1995; The construction was conducted on the donations of ordinary citizens and large businessmen. The first divine service in the cathedral was built on December 25, 2002. Consecrated exactly 9 years after the laying, the day of St. George the Victorious - the heavenly patron of Georgia; The consecration was performed by Patriarch Ilia II in the service of the bishops and clergymen of the Georgian Church, as well as representatives of the Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Russian, Serbian, Romanian, Cypriot, Hellas, Polish, Albanian Churches, and the Orthodox Church in America.
After consecration in the Trinity Cathedral from Sioni the department of the Catholicos of Georgia was moved.
The Tbilisi cable car is very popular among the guests of the capital. It serves as a pretty good entertainment and at the same time connects the new modern park of Rica with the ancient fortress of Narikala, located on top of one of the hills. You can ride on a cable car regardless of the season: there are always enough people.
Museum of Georgia. Simon Janashia, formerly known as the State Museum of History of Georgia, is one of the main historical museums in the country, which presents the most important archaeological finds. The bulk of his collection was evacuated by the Georgian government to Europe after the Bolshevik seizure of the country in 1921 and was returned to Soviet Georgia thanks to the efforts of Georgian emigrant scholar Ekvtime Takaishvili in 1945. In 1947, the museum was renamed in honor of the Georgian historian Simon Janashia.
The museum contains thousands of Georgian and Caucasian archaeological and ethnographic monuments. The permanent exhibition demonstrates in a chronological order the history of Georgian culture from the Bronze Age to the beginning of the 20th cnjktnbz century. The most valuable exhibits of the museum include:
Discovered in Dmanisi fossilized hominoid Homo Ergaster remains,
A treasure from Akhalgori (5th century BC) containing unique examples of jewelry adorned the style of arts and crafts of Achaemenid Iran and the local tradition,
A collection of 80,000 coins, mainly Georgian coinage,
Medieval metal icons and samples of gold forging,
One of the world's largest collections of Urartian inscriptions on stone.
In the museum there is an abstract painting written by Vasily Kandinsky in the late 1900s; according to some researchers, this is the first example of abstract art in contemporary art.
The Georgian Museum of Art is one of the most important museums in Georgia. It contains about 140,000 items of storage of works of Georgian, Eastern, Russian and European art.
The predecessor of the modern museum of the Museum of Art - the National Art Gallery, was created thanks to the efforts of educated young Georgian artists in Tbilisi on February 1, 1920. From this project the Central Museum of Fine Arts was opened, which was opened in August 1923. Additional exhibits were obtained from various small collections. At the end of 1932 the museum was moved to the XIII church in Metekhi district
In 1945, after a special agreement between the Soviet and French government, numerous works of art constituting the national treasure of Georgia-manuscripts, metalwork, jewelry, enamels, paintings-evacuated by the Georgian government in exile after the 1921 invasion of the Red Army and saved in exile Takaishvili - were returned to Tbilisi and added to the museum collection.
The National Gallery of Georgia (the original name "Blue Gallery") was founded in Tiflis in the years 1917-1920 of the XX century thanks to the famous Georgian artist and public figure Dmitry Shevardnadze. At one time, he made a significant contribution not only to the establishment of the institution, but also to its subsequent development. The first exhibition of works of art by Georgian and foreign authors of the XVIII-XIX centuries was held in 1920. The National Gallery is located in the center of Tbilisi in an old building, built in 1888 by the famous architect Albert Salzman. In terms of architectural style, the mansion is reminiscent of the Roman palace of the Italian architect Pio Piacentini.
The National Academy of Sciences of Georgia, formerly known as the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR, the Academy of Sciences of Georgia) is the main scientific society of Georgia.
The Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR was founded on February 10, 1941 on the basis of the Georgian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
In 1941 the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR was founded.
Scientific recognition was given to the Georgian schools of mathematics, physics, psychology, philosophy, physiology, botany, oriental studies, linguistics, archeology, ethnography and paleobiology.
After the proclamation of Georgia's state independence, in 1995 the National Academy of Sciences of Georgia was established. She is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU, France).
In 2007, the reform of the Academy took place; All the research institutes that were part of the NAS of Georgia were transferred to universities.
The main "artery" of the city of Tbilisi and its main decoration, rightly considered, is the Shota Rustaveli Avenue. In addition to its unusual and rich sights, it links the old and new part of the capital. But not so long ago, just some 100 years ago, the street was proudly called Golovinsky Prospekt, in honor of the Commander-in-Chief of the Caucasus.
Everyone who gets to Tbilisi even by passing through, tries to visit the central street. Despite the fact that the length of the avenue is relatively small (about 1.5 kilometers), you can see a lot of interesting places on it: two squares (starting and ending the inspection), small but very cute figures depicting different people and their profession, monuments of architecture, such as, for example, the building of the former Georgian parliament and much more.
Walking along Rustaveli is always pleasant, because trees are planted on both sides (mostly plane trees), parks are often found in neighboring quarters, drinking fountains are equipped, which is very useful in summer heat, and if you are hungry, you will be able to find good institutions at quite affordable prices .
Tbilisi Opera or the Georgian Opera and Ballet Theater. Paliashvili is the oldest and most famous theatrical institution in Tbilisi, with the appearance of which the European theater culture began to take root in Georgia.
The construction of the theater began under Count Vorontsov. The construction was commissioned by the Italian Giovanni Scudieri, and in April 1847 the foundation was laid. In the spring of 1851 the theater was completed.
In its first version, it accommodated 700 spectators. The chandelier for the main hall was brought by sea from Marseille. Interior design was handled by Gregory Gagarin - author of frescoes in the Cathedral of Sion. In the end, the theater turned out, which Alexander Dumas called the most beautiful of those he saw.
The theater stood for about 20 years. On October 11, 1874, during the opera "Norma" the theater suddenly caught fire. Burned everything. And Gagarin's paintings, and archives, and scenery.
In 1876, they held a competition for a new building project and Victor Schreter won it, who already built a huge number of private buildings in St. Petersburg and the existing Mariinsky Theater. The construction of the theater ended in 1896. This new building stood for almost a hundred years.
In 1960, the theater artist Sergo Kobuladze (famous illustrations for "The Knight in the Panther's Skin") created a curtain for the theater hall. This curtain very quickly became famous and became something of a theater symbol, and the man with the lyre depicted on the curtain subsequently became the logo of this institution.
On May 9, 1973, a new fire appeared on the building. The building survived, but many scenery and that famous curtain died. Only in 1978 the theater managed to be restored, but the curtain did not return to life.
Thanks to the financial support of the Ivanishvili Foundation, an epoch-making event took place on January 30, 2016: the theater opened. Moreover, after 42 years of oblivion, the same cult curtain of Kobuladze's work was restored.
Now in this building put operas and ballets.